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Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. Physically and geologically, Europe is the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, west of Asia. Europe is bounded to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the west by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Mediterranean Sea, to the southeast by the Caucasus Mountains and the Black Sea and the waterways connecting the Black Sea to the Mediterranean.

Europe is the birthplace of Western culture. European nations played a predominant role in global affairs from the 16th century onwards, especially after the beginning of colonization. By the 17th and 18th centuries European nations controlled most of Africa, the Americas and large portions of Asia. World War I and World War II led to a decline in European dominance in world affairs as the United States and Soviet Union took preeminence. The Cold War between those two superpowers divided Europe along the Iron Curtain. European integration led to the formation of the Council of Europe and the European Union in Western Europe, both of which eventually expanded to include Central and Eastern Europe after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991.

Europe and Lovia Edit

The first Lovian settlers were European migrants who were searching for a better life in California, as well as Asians who came because of the gold rush. The settlers from European origin where mostly Dutchmen, Belgians, British, Frenchmen, Romanians and Spaniards.

The political relations between Europe and Lovia have always been very good. The European Union is one of Lovia's partners in economical and political affairs.

European Union Edit

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic community of 27 member states with supranational and intergovernmental features, located primarily in Europe. It traces its origins to the European Economic Community (EEC) formed in 1957 by the Treaty of Rome among six European countries. Since then EU has grown in size through the accession of new member states and has increased its powers by the addition of new policy areas to its remit. In 1993, the Maastricht Treaty established the current legal framework. The Treaty of Lisbon signed in December 2007 initiates a ratification process in 2008 and is amending the existing treaties. It entered into force on 1 December 2009.

The EU creates a single market by a system of laws which apply in all member states, guaranteeing the freedom of movement of people, goods, services and capital. It maintains a common trade policy, agricultural and fisheries policies, and a regional development policy. In 1999 the EU introduced a common currency, the euro, which has been adopted by fifteen member states. It has also developed a role in foreign policy, and in justice and home affairs. Passport control between many member states has been abolished under the Schengen Agreement.

Treaty of Lisbon Edit

The Treaty of Lisbon (also known as the Reform Treaty) is a treaty signed on December 13, 2007 at a summit in Lisbon, Portugal. It amends the existing treaties of the European Union (EU). It is due to come into force in 2009, if successfully ratified by all European Union member states, and would carry out most of the reforms previously proposed in the rejected European Treaty Constitution.

The formal title of the treaty is Treaty of Lisbon amending the Treaty on European Union and the establishing the European Community. It was intended that the treaty would come into force on January 1, 2009 in time for the 2009 European elections later that year. If there was a delay in ratification pushing it beyond that date, it would come into force on the first day of the month following the last ratification.

In 2005, the Constitution was rejected in referenda in France and in the Netherlands. As support by all members was required the Constitution was dropped and in July 2007 the European Council agreed a new framework that was later drafted and agreed at an Intergovernmental Conference (IGC).

The text agreed on 2007-10-19 contained many of the changes of the Constitution but would not replace the existing treaties, as the Constitution would have done, but amended them. It also dropped certain state-like elements, such as the EU flag, and guaranteed a number of opt-outs for certain states.

External links Edit

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